Book Fair 2.0; On bloggers, ebooks and pirates

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Friday, October 12, 2007

The Internet is very much present at the Frankfurt Book Fair 2007, not just, like in previous years, as a means for the journalists who have 80 workplaces for their own notebooks to report on the fair, but like before as a chance – and as a threat for rights-owners of digital media.

Contents

  • 1 Bloggers in the Living Room 2.0 at the Fair
  • 2 EBooks and Digitalization
  • 3 Pirates threatening the audiobooks
  • 4 Sources

After a marginal existence in the previous year, bloggers have got their own “living room 2.0” at the fair, furnished with everything a blogger needs, including media attention. Every day from Wednesday October 10 to Sunday October 14 they will write and podcast about the big names to meet, the events not to be missed and their very personal experiences and thoughts. Three of the bloggers write in English, two English language podcasts are done, to widen the reach of the Book Fair 2.0. The blog entries and podcasts will be available until after the book fair at http://www.book-fair.com/en/wordpress/ and the bloggers themselves can be visited on the weekend at hall 4.2, Q411, though until now it is more the media and less the visitors of the fair, the bloggers come in contact with.

Digitalization and digital media, especially books and magazines offered digitally, are a hot topic at this year’s Frankfurt Book Fair, as more and more publishers want to see the digital counterparts of their traditional media not just as a field to be present in, but as a possible profit center. With scientific books, this move already was quite successful: Publishing house Springer for example, offering over 40,000 ebooks and over 1700 electronic magazines, of which over 1200 are still actively continued with Springer, nowadays does an ebook-variant of every traditional scientific book they print – and already has the largest part of their cash-flow from digital media.

This is harder for fiction publishing houses as the Pabel Möwig group (VPM), which has become active early. They do offer the digitized new adventures of – say, the outer-space-hero Perry Rhodan -, but the turnover is still only a small addition to the print and other media versions. Readers become readier to read on a screen, but their readiness is still growing slowly. Since a new generation of readers is growing up using the internet as a reference work – especially Google and Wikipedia – it will become more and more natural in the future.

A growing number of service companies in the publishing sector therefore offers re-digitalization apart from increasingly effective content management systems, with which new forms of media can easily be compiled from the contents of a data base.

Older works, of which the publishing house owns the rights, but for which a reprint might not be profitable, are scanned, divided into content sections and tagged. When the original type face isn’t good enough, books are typewritten in third world countries two or three times which are corrected and merged into a final version. Once in the system, digitalized books can be at disposal as MobiPocket ebooks or Print On Demand (POD) and with aid of the Amazon BookSurge program remain available, possibly even within 24 hours.

Digital content can also be used as a marketing-tool with the “Search Inside” from Amazon.com, where the full text of a book is visible but only small parts of the book are shown at a time.

Right after Amazon, Google also presented their own projects for the digitalization of books, where publishers have the option of just sending a box or container full of their books in printed form and leave the job of digitalization to Google, where afterwards their content will be findable with Google Book Search. The difference between those two internet services was obvious, though: Amazon wants to earn money with books, while Google’s business is advertising, their revenue model is AdSense and AdWords, targeted as perfect as possible with full text search. Both services had to answer questions as to how they will protect the content from unpaid exploitation, as probably fewer and fewer users will be willing to pay for a digital eBook when they can read the content for free, up to twenty pages at a time. The freeloader mentality of many Internet users was seen as a threat by many of the publishers.

Category:Panama

BKwHfBLM | Uncategorized | 03 30th, 2017  |  No Comments »

This is the category for Panama, a country in Central America. See also the Panama Portal.

Refresh this list to see the latest articles.

  • 16 December 2014: Freighter hits fishing boat in Gulf of Suez; thirteen dead
  • 21 April 2014: Wikinews interviews Paúl M. Velazco about new yellow-shouldered bat species
  • 15 November 2010: Somali piracy: Kenyan navy kills three, Chinese ship hijacked, British couple freed
  • 25 March 2010: Private guard kills Somali pirate in Gulf of Aden
  • 29 December 2009: Somali pirates capture two ships
  • 4 July 2009: Honduras interim government rejects orders to reinstate deposed president
  • 28 March 2009: Somali pirates seize two European tankers, Seychelles yacht
  • 15 February 2009: Japanese tanker MV Chemstar Venus freed by Somali pirates
  • 31 May 2008: Helicopter crash in Panama kills Chilean police chief and ten others
  • 15 June 2007: Panama: Eleven years of a conflict between PPC and ex-workers of Port Authority
see older articles?Category:Panama

From Wikinews, the free news source you can write.




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Pages in category “Panama”

Lorry drops thirteen tonnes of fish in British town

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Tuesday, March 29, 2005

A lorry spilt thirteen tonnes of raw fish on a road in the small British town of Shaftesbury, Dorset, earlier today.

Crates of iced fish, worth £80,000, apparently burst out the rear doors of the lorry as it climbed a hill.

The BBC reports Dorset Police as saying “It appears as the lorry started its ascent up the hill the load in the rear of the articulated container slipped backwards, probably on the wet floor, and the weight of the fish on the rear doors forced the doors open.”

The clean-up was hampered by poor weather conditions as Dorset County Council struggled to use a digger and a second lorry to clear the fish.

Flight lands safely with help from mobile phone text messages

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Monday, August 11, 2008

In November 2007, a twin-engine 30-year-old Piper aircraft lost all electrical power on board shortly after departing from Kerry airport in Ireland for a flight to Jersey. Without any electrical power, the pilot was unable to use his radio to contact air traffic control. He was briefly able to re-establish contact with the tower using his cell phone, but that was also disrupted.

The report into the incident published on August 6 revealed how a quick-thinking air traffic controller in Cork started sending directions to the pilot by text message. With this assistance, the plane, with five people on board, landed safely after the undercarriage was lowered manually and air traffic control visually confirmed that it was down. Prior to lowering the undercarriage, the first officer noticed that the nose wheel had failed to retract fully and was actually at half its travel.

“In this incident the positive and proactive initiative of the ATC controller, who, on realising that mobile audio communication from the pilot was intermittent, quickly switched to texting his instructions instead”, said John Hughes, an air accident investigator who reported on the incident. “This contributed to the safe resolution of the incident and, for such, the controller should be commended for his actions.”

The pilot, aged 39 and with 1,900 hours of flying experience, succeeded in climbing to an altitude of 6,500 feet without any problems, but needed to communicate to ensure a safe landing. He originally attempted to contact Kerry airport, and after that failed he made attempts to contact Cork.

The report found that the loss of electrical power was due to the aircraft’s alternators failing to maintain the required voltage, probably due to the battery voltage being insufficient to excite the alternator’s windings. The relay may have been in poor condition after having been subjected to a heavy load following take-off, possibly contributing to the incident.

City to sue owner of partially collapsed 19th century livery in Buffalo, New York

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Tuesday, June 24, 2008

Buffalo, New York — Two weeks after a 19th century stable and livery on Jersey Street partially collapsed and caused 15 homes to be evacuated in Buffalo, New York, residents still do not have answers from the city despite a court order to work with them and come to an agreement on a way to save some or all of the building, Wikinews has learned. Despite the frustration from residents, the city is planning on suing the building’s owner. A rally was held at the stable’s site where residents are hoping to bring more awareness to the situation and gain more support to save the building.

On June 11, a significant portion of the stable’s right side wall collapsed into the yard of a resident’s home. Authorities, including the Buffalo Fire Department were called to the scene to evaluate the collapse and evacuate 15 homes of residents surrounding the stable as a precautionary measure. The following day, the city ordered an emergency demolition on the building, which was stopped by a restraining order residents with Save The Livery (www.savethelivery.com) won on June 14. Two weeks later, five homes are still evacuated and residents don’t know when they will be able to return.

On June 19, Judge Justice Christopher Burns of the New York State Supreme Court ordered a halt to the emergency demolition and ordered the city and residents to come to an agreement to save the building, or at least a significant portion of it. Despite a court date today, no agreement has yet been reached between the two parties.

“It is in the interest of the city to have a safe environment–but also important to maintain a sense of historical preservation,” stated Burns in his June 19th ruling. The court ruled that a limited demolition could take place and that the city was only allowed to remove material in immediate danger to residents and pedestrians, but stated that the demolition could only be performed with “hand tools.” The court also ordered that any rubble which had fallen into neighboring yards when the building collapsed, to be removed. Since then, most of not all the significantly damaged portions of the building or portions in immediate danger of falling have been demolished. The roof has also been removed to put less stress on the stable’s walls.

“Its been over three years since we have been having problems with part of the livery falling down. There was an implosion two weeks ago and suddenly the city wanted to have an emergency demolition,” said Catherine Herrick who lives on Summer Street immediately behind the stable and is the main plaintiff in the lawsuit against the city. Many homes on Summer are small cottages which were used as servants quarters when the stable was in operation, many of which were built in the 1820’s. At least seven homes on Summer border the stable’s back walls. Residents in those homes have significant gardens which have been planted against the building and growing for decades.

“Both parties are to continue to work together to see how we can meet everybody’s needs. This is the third time we have been in that courtroom, and that is what we were basically told to do,” added Herrick who said the rally was held today because this “is Buffalo’s history. Buffalo is a wonderful place to live because of its history and this is a historical, beautiful building and we need to keep those beautiful buildings.”

Herrick states that the city is working with residents, but also believes that its “slow moving” and they are allowing the owner to get away with neglect on the property.

“I believe right now that they are letting the owner get off. The owner was negligent for 20 years, and hasn’t done anything to it despite what he has claimed to say. Now that this is an emergency situation, the city has a lot to say about it,” added Herrick.

Currently the building is owned by Bob Freudenheim who has several building violations against him because its poor condition. He has received at least five violations in three months and residents who live near the building state that Freudenheim should be “100% responsible” for his actions.

Freudenheim gave the city permission to demolish the building on June 12 during an emergency Preservation Board meeting, because he would not be “rehabilitating the building anytime soon.” Freudenheim, along with his wife Nina, were part-owners of the Hotel Lenox at 140 North Street in Buffalo and were advocates to stop the Elmwood Village Hotel from being built on the Southeast corner of Forest and Elmwood Avenues. They also financially supported a lawsuit in an attempt to stop the hotel from being built. Though it is not known exactly how long Freudenheim has owned the stable, Wikinews has learned that he was the owner while fighting to stop the hotel from being built. Residents say that he has been the owner for at least 22 years. Attorneys for Freudenheim confirm that the city is starting proceedings against him for his violations beginning as early as Wednesday June 25. Freudenheim has not released a statement and could not be reached for comment.

Many residents want the building preserved and Herrick states that their engineer can have it stable in “four days” as opposed to the 14-30 days it would take to demolish the building and “at a lesser cost than what it costs to demolish it.”

It will cost the city nearly US$300,000 to demolish the building which is paid for with tax money collected from residents in the city. The Buffalo News reports that fees are approaching $700,000. Though reports say there is a potential buyer of the stable, Wikinews cannot independently confirm those reports.

Residents say the stable was designed by Richard A. Waite, a 19th century architect, and was first owned by a company called White Bros., used as a stable and housed at least 30 horses at any given time. It also stored “coaches, coupes, broughams, Victorias and everything in the line of light livery,” stated an article from the West Side Topics dated 1906. According to the article, The company first opened in 1881 on Thirteenth Street, now Normal Avenue, and later moved into the Jersey building in 1892. The Buffalo Fire Department believes the building was built around 1814, while the city property database states it was built in 1870. It is believed to be only one of three stables of this kind still standing in the country.

At about 1950, the stable was converted into an automobile body shop and gasoline station.A property record search showed that in 1950 at least four fuel storage tanks were installed on the property. Two are listed as 550 square feet while the other two are 2,000 square feet. All of the tanks are designated as a TK4, which New York State says is used for “below ground horizontal bulk fuel storage.” The cost of installing a tank of that nature according to the state, at that time, included the tank itself, “excavation and backfill,” but did not include “the piping, ballast, or hold-down slab orring.” It is not known if the tanks are still on the property, but residents are concerned the city was not taking the precautions to find out.

Wikinews has called the city along with the Mayor’s office several times, but both have yet to return our calls. There are conflicting reports as to the date of the next hearing. According to Herrick, the next hearing is July 1, 2008 though the Buffalo News states the next hearing is July 8. The News also states that Burns will make a final ruling on the stable at this time.

Pharmaceutical Formulation Development Series: How Good Are Computer Pk Models?

BKwHfBLM | Earthmoving Equipment | 03 28th, 2017  |  No Comments »

Submitted by: Bruce Rehlaender, Ph.D.

No one doubts the utility of computers for simple things like aerospace engineering and weather prediction, but pharmacokinetics is not rocket science. It is far more complex. Computers are indispensible for analyzing PK data, but how well can they do at actually predicting drug delivery and disposition?

Some people are in love with computer models, and you can t blame them. There is an undeniable appeal to setting up a complex series of interactions in microscopic bits of doped silicon, inputting a set of values, and having an answer appear on a computer screen. But is the answer correct? Is it even reliable enough to be useful? This is where the controversy lies between model enthusiasts and skeptics.

First, to state the obvious: the computer is not the limitation. Computers can do pretty much anything you want them to, and in this day and age, they can do it quite quickly. But they do need to be told what to do, and that is where the limitation lies.

Figuring out where a rocket is going is largely an exercise in Newtonian physics. Many different masses and energies and gravitational fields need to be taken into account, but all of these are rather clearly defined. Biological processes such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion are extraordinarily complex in comparison. Factors affecting absorption from the GI tract may include stomach acid secretion, food and drink intake, gastric emptying rate, timing and level of pancreatic secretions, bile secretions, mucous thickness and viscosity, intestinal motility, pH, efflux pump expression, cellular damage, drug particle size, intrinsic dissolution, etc. Unlike the orientation of the sun, moon, and planets, each of these factors is highly variable not only from patient to patient but also from one minute to the next. A complete microscopic description of the system with all of its interdependent variables may or may not be too complex for a supercomputer, but it is certainly too complex for a human programmer.

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By necessity, PK modeling software packages address these processes on a macroscopic, rather than a microscopic scale. Disintegration, dissolution, and transcellular diffusion are input as constants based on in vitro data and any in vivo feedback available. Biological systems are simplified and broken down into compartments, essentially mathematical boxes among which differential equations can be expressed. It is not perfect, but it is the best we can reasonably do. Is it good enough?

The obvious answer is another question: good enough for what? A computer model might allow you to generate a plasma concentration curve from a chemical structure, but don t count on its being accurate. At the other extreme, data from a large scale PK study can be used to generate an accurate model, but it might not tell you anything the study results haven t already.

Where we have found PK modeling to be extremely useful is in identifying underlying mechanisms and using that understanding to focus experimental efforts. For example, we were recently working on a bioavailability enhancement project with a weak base drug that had a rather odd biphasic absorption profile in early clinical studies. After running through the standard list of PK parameters and still not matching the experimental profile, we tried altering the rate at which the drug precipitated from solution in the model and found that by optimizing this value we could match the shape of the PK profile quite exactly. Understanding that bioavailability of the drug was limited by its re-precipitation as it transited to higher pH regions of the GI tract and being able to estimate the rate at which this was occurring allowed us to design dosage forms to minimize this problem.

In many cases, we have utilized the complex PK models in such programs as Gastroplus to assess whether formulation changes are likely to have a substantial impact on a desired outcome parameter, such as bioavailability. In other cases, we have been able to combine physicochemical characterization data with data from liver microsome, CaCo2, and animal pharmacokinetic studies to generate detailed models that allow for exceptionally accurate allometric scaling.

Those who would have supercomputers replace laboratories altogether will certainly need to wait, but for those of us with more limited expectations, computer modeling is an incredibly powerful tool to focus efforts, minimize risks, and allow better informed decisions along the development pathway.

Find more articles like this one by searching for “Pharmaceutical Formulation Development Series”.

About the Author: Bruce Rehlaender, Ph.D., Principal, Formulation Development at

PharmaDirections

, a pharmaceutical consulting and project management company specializing in

preclinical development

,

CMC

and

regulatory affairs

. We design and direct preclinical programs for biotech firms.

Source:

isnare.com

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